Trafficking refers to situations where people are moved from place to place or country to country against their will or under duress, by means such as deception, coercion or force, usually for the gains of others, in that the person(s) trafficked will be exploited for financial gain.

Smuggling is not to be confused with people trafficking. Smuggling refers to situations where a person or persons pay someone to be transported to a different country of their own free will. In many cases the person acquiring the services of a smuggler is in a very difficult situation and this may be the only available option to them to access a place of safety or country in which they wish to apply for asylum. In most cases smugglers operate as a business and charge people large sums of money for journeys with no guarantees for their safety or of reaching their intended destination.