Eurostat asylum statistics for 2012

Posted On: March 25, 2013

STAT/13/48

22 March 2013

Asylum in the EU27
The number of asylum applicants registered in the EU27 rose to more than 330 000 in 2012

In 2012, there were 332 000 asylum applicants1 registered in the EU27. It is estimated that around 90% of these were new applicants and around 10% were repeat applicants2. In 2011, there were 302 000 asylum applicants.

While Afghanistan (8% of the total number of applicants) remained in 2012 the first main country of citizenship3 of these applicants, Syria (7%) became the second just ahead of Russia (7%), Pakistan (6%) and Serbia (6%).

These data4 on asylum applicants in the EU27 are issued by Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union.

Germany, France, Sweden, the United Kingdom and Belgium register 70% of all applicants

In 2012, the highest number of applicants was registered in Germany (77 500 applicants, or 23% of total applicants), followed by France (60 600, or 18%), Sweden (43 900, or 13%), the United Kingdom (28 200, or 8%) and Belgium (28 100, or 8%). These five Member States accounted for more than 70% of all applicants registered in the EU27 in 2012.

Compared with the population of each Member State, the highest rates of applicants registered were recorded in Malta (5 000 applicants per million inhabitants), Sweden (4 600), Luxembourg (3 900), Belgium (2 500) and Austria (2 100), and the lowest in Portugal (30), Estonia and Spain (both 55) and the Czech Republic (70).

In some Member States, a large proportion of the applicants came from a single country. The Member States with the highest concentrations were Malta (60% of the applicants came from Somalia), Poland (57% from Russia), Latvia (51% from Georgia), Lithuania (48% from Georgia), Estonia (45% from Georgia) and Hungary (41% from Afghanistan).

More than a quarter of first instance decisions were positive

In 2012 in the EU273, 73% of first instance decisions5 made on asylum applications were rejections, while 14% of applicants were granted refugee status, 10% subsidiary protection and 2% authorisation to stay for humanitarian reasons. It should be noted that first instance decisions made in 2012 may refer to applications registered in previous years.

If the proportion of positive decisions varies considerably among Member States, it should be kept in mind that the country of origin of applicants also differs greatly between Member States.


Asylum applicants, 2012

 

Applicants

Citizenships   of main groups of asylum applicants**

2012

Per million inh.

First   group

#

%

Second   group

#

%

Third   group

#

%

EU27

331   975*

660*

Afghanistan

26 250

8

Syria

23 510

7

Russia

23 360

7

Belgium

28 105

2 535

Afghanistan

3 290

12

Russia

2 655

9

Guinea

2 190

8

Bulgaria

1 385

190

Syria

450

32

Iraq

325

23

Stateless

155

11

Czech Republic

740

70

Ukraine

175

24

Syria

70

9

Belarus

55

7

Denmark

6 045

1 085

Somalia

910

15

Syria

875

15

Afghanistan

565

9

Germany

77 540

945

Serbia

12 810

17

Syria

7 930

10

Afghanistan

7 840

10

Estonia

75

55

Georgia

35

45

Russia

10

10

Armenia

5

6

Ireland

955

210

Nigeria

160

17

Dem. Rep. of the Congo

60

6

Zimbabwe

50

5

Greece

9 575

850

Pakistan

2 340

24

Bangladesh

1 005

11

Georgia

895

9

Spain

2 565

55

Syria

255

10

Nigeria

205

8

Algeria

200

8

France

60 560

925

Russia

5 930

 10

Dem. Rep. of the Congo

5 500

9

Sri Lanka

3 825

6

Italy

15 715

260

Pakistan

2 365

15

Nigeria

1 515

 10

Afghanistan

1 365

9

Cyprus

1 635

1 895

Syria

565

34

Vietnam

200

12

Bangladesh

190

12

Latvia

205

100

Georgia

105

51

Dem.   Rep. of the Congo

25

12

Syria

20

9

Lithuania

645

215

Georgia

310

48

Afghanistan

100

15

Russia

95

15

Luxembourg

2 050

3 905

Serbia

385

19

Albania

305

15

Montenegro

290

14

Hungary

2 155

215

Afghanistan

880

41

Pakistan

325

15

Kosovo***

225

10

Malta

2 080

4 980

Somalia

1 250

60

Eritrea

435

21

Syria

150

7

Netherlands

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

Austria

17 425

2 065

Afghanistan

4 015

23

Russia

3 110

18

Pakistan

1 825

10

Poland

10 750

280

Russia

6 085

57

Georgia

3 235

30

Armenia

415

4

Portugal

295

30

Guinea

65

22

Nigeria

30

10

Syria

20

7

Romania

2 510

120

Algeria

600

24

Morocco

355

14

Pakistan

335

13

Slovenia

305

150

Afghanistan

65

21

Syria

30

11

Turkey

25

9

Slovakia

730

135

Somalia

225

31

Afghanistan

90

12

Georgia

55

8

Finland

3 095

575

Iraq

830

27

Russia

225

7

Afghanistan

210

7

Sweden

43 865

4 625

Syria

7 920

18

Somalia

5 695

13

Afghanistan

4 760

11

United Kingdom

28 175

445

Pakistan

4 880

17

Iran

3 250

12

Sri Lanka

2 160

8

Iceland

105

330

Nigeria

15

14

Iran

15

13

Afghanistan

10

7

Norway

9 685

1 940

Somalia

2 180

23

Eritrea

1 185

12

Afghanistan

985

10

Switzerland

28 445

3 575

Eritrea

4 410

16

Nigeria

2 745

10

Tunisia

2 240

8

*       Eurostat estimate including the Netherlands

**     EU27 top three citizenships excluding data for the Netherlands

***    Kosovo under UN Security Council Resolution 1244

:       Data not available

Data are rounded to the nearest 5.


First instance decisions, 2012

 

Total   decisions

Positive   decisions

Of   which:

Rejections

Refugee   status

Subsidiary   protection

Humanitarian   reasons

EU27*

268   045

71   245

37   065

27   920

6   415

196   920

Belgium

24 525

5 555

3 985

1 565

18 970

Bulgaria

640

170

20

150

470

Czech   Republic

720

175

50

125

5

545

Denmark

3 715

1 695

1 035

545

120

2 020

Germany

58 645

17 140

8 765

6 975

1 400

41 510

Estonia

65

20

10

5

10

45

Ireland

935

95

65

25

840

Greece

11 195

95

30

45

20

11 095

Spain

2 600

525

230

285

10

2 070

France

59 800

8 655

7 120

1 535

51 145

Italy

21 705

7 930

1 735

4 410

1 935

13 900

Cyprus

1 335

105

80

10

15

1 230

Latvia

145

25

5

20

120

Lithuania

390

55

15

40

335

Luxembourg

1 650

40

35

5

1 610

Hungary

1 100

350

70

240

40

750

Malta

1 590

1 435

35

1 235

160

155

Netherlands

:

:

:

:

:

:

Austria

15 895

4 455

2 680

1 775

11 440

Poland

2 435

475

85

140

250

1 960

Portugal

230

100

15

85

130

Romania

1 625

230

145

85

0

1 390

Slovenia

220

35

20

15

185

Slovakia

440

190

10

100

80

250

Finland

3 090

1 555

545

775

240

1 535

Sweden

31 520

12 400

3 745

7 595

1 060

19 120

United   Kingdom

21 845

7 735

6 535

130

1 070

14 110

Iceland

50

10

5

**

**

40

Norway

7 160

4 600

3 675

1 185

280

5 430

Switzerland

16 650

4 280

2 455

505

1 315

12 370

–       Not applicable

*       EU27 excluding the Netherlands

**     One or two first instance decisions

:       Data not available

 

Data are rounded to the nearest 5.

  1. Asylum applicant means a person having submitted an application for international protection or having been included in such application as a family member during the reference period. For reasons of simplicity, the term “applicant” has been used in this Release, because the data counts individuals rather than applications, which include in some cases several persons.

‘Application for international protection’ means an application for international protection as defined in Art. 2(g) of Council Directive 2004/83/EC, i.e. including requests for refugee status or for subsidiary protection status, irrespective of whether the application was lodged on arrival at border, or from inside the country, and irrespective of whether the person entered the territory legally (e.g. as a tourist) or illegally.

Within the same month every person being a subject of asylum application is counted only once, therefore repeat applications are not recorded if the first application has been lodged in the same month. However, such a repeat application will be recorded if lodged in a different reference month. It means that the annual figures, which are based on an aggregation of monthly data, may overestimate the number of persons applying for international protection.

  1. This proportion has been estimated on the basis of the share of repeat applicants available in 23 of the 27 Member States (Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Estonia, Ireland, Greece, Spain, France, Italy, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Finland, Sweden and the United Kingdom). These Member States covered 90% of all asylum applicants registered in the EU27 in 2012.
  2. EU27 figures on citizenships of main groups of asylum applicants and first instance decisions presented in this News Release do not include data for the Netherlands, which for technical reasons cannot deliver data for this publication.
  3. The data used for this publication are provided to Eurostat by the Ministries of Interior, Justice or immigration agencies of the Member States. Apart from statistics on new asylum applicants, these data are supplied by Member States according to the provisions of Article 4 of the Regulation (EC) 862/2007 of 11 July 2007 on Community statistics on migration and international protection.
  4. First instance decision means a decision made in response to an asylum application at the first instance level of the asylum procedure. The number of asylum applicants and the number of first instance decisions during the same reference period differs. This is due to the time lag between the date of the asylum application and the date of the decision on the asylum application. The duration of this time lag may vary considerably depending on the national asylum procedure and the administrative workload. An asylum application lodged in one reference period may therefore result in a decision in a later period, while some asylum decisions reported for that period may relate to applications lodged in previous reference periods.

Rejected applicant means a person covered by first instance decision rejecting application for international protection, such as, inter alia, decisions considering applications as inadmissible or as unfounded and decisions under priority and accelerated procedures, taken by administrative or judicial bodies during the reference period. Rejected applicants have the possibility to appeal against refusal. The outcomes of the appeals may overturn the results of the first instance decisions and may vary greatly between countries.

Person granted refugee status at first instance means a person covered by first instance decision granting refugee status, taken by administrative or judicial bodies during the reference period. Refugee status means status as defined in Art.2(d) of Directive 2004/83/EC within the meaning of Art.1 of the Geneva Convention relating to the Status of Refugees of 28 July 1951, as amended by the New York Protocol of 31 January 1967. According to the Art.2(c) of that Directive refugee means a third country national who, owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, political opinion or membership of a particular social group, is outside the country of nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself or herself of the protection of that country, or a stateless person, who, being outside of the country of former habitual residence for the same reasons as mentioned above, is unable or, owing to such fear, unwilling to return to it.

Person granted subsidiary protection status at first instance means a person covered by first instance decision granting subsidiary protection status, taken by administrative or judicial bodies during the reference period. Subsidiary protection status means status as defined in Art.2(f) of Directive 2004/83/EC. According to the Art.2(e) of that Directive person eligible for subsidiary protection means a third country national or a stateless person who does not qualify as a refugee but in respect of whom substantial grounds have been shown for believing that the person concerned, if returned to his or her country of origin, or in the case of a stateless person, to his or her country of former habitual residence, would face a real risk of suffering serious harm and is unable, or, owing to such risk, unwilling to avail himself or herself of the protection of that country.

Person granted authorisation to stay for humanitarian reasons at first instance means a person covered by other first instance decision granting authorisation to stay for humanitarian reasons under national law concerning international protection, taken by administrative or judicial bodies during the reference period. It includes persons who are not eligible for international protection as currently defined in the first stage legal instruments, but are nonetheless protected against removal under the obligations that are imposed on all Member States by international refugee or human rights instruments or on the basis of principles flowing from such instruments. Examples of such categories include persons who are not removable on ill health grounds and unaccompanied minors.

Available at http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_STAT-13-48_en.htm

Issued by: Eurostat Press Office

Vincent BOURGEAIS

Tel:   +352-4301-33 444

eurostat-pressoffice@ec.europa.eu

Eurostat News Releases on the internet: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat

For further information on the data:

Piotr   JUCHNO

Tel:   +352-4301-36 240

piotr.juchno@ec.europa.eu

Alexandros   BITOULAS

Tel:   +352-4301-37 608

alexandros.bitoulas@ec.europa.eu